Even long time before Luther’s reformation ideas appeared, the breezes of the change was swirling about in Europe. Scholars and philosophers as Wyclif (from England), Jan Hus (from Bohemia) and Saronavola, and other early reformers put an accent on the difference between the external and the internal piety, which was especially noticeable in sacred art and architecture.
That was one of the main points of Luther’s accusation of Catholic Church as evidence of distancing from the form of early Christian thought and conformity with the secular life. That also served as the main reason for the iconoclasm as destruction of the art which served to false idolatry and put emphasis on outer richness, instead of inner piety, and made room for new type of sacred art in which main role was devoted to Christ, Son of God.
The Aim of the paper is to research the depiction of Christ as the main topic in the art of protestant character.
1) To find out what was the reason of the iconoclasm and how it influenced attitude towards art and later formed new statutes of religious art;
2) To look at the beginning of iconoclasm in Wittenberg from its importance on further iconoclastic movement in Europe;
3) To compare theological grounding of Protestant Church and its influence on Protestant art;
4) To find link between theological attitude towards Christ and practical manifestation of the theology in works of two painters.
In the paper the author mainly looks at Lutheran art – paintings in altarpieces and carvings which later were printed as illustrations in books of religious subject.
As we know there were a lot of political and social reasons for Luther’s movement and reformation, which were closely connected with extreme religious feelings and new ideas coming from educated upper-class.
One of the main focuses in reformation thought was put on inner religiosity. This statement was made in opposition to the luxurious externals of the Catholic piety, which was brightly seen in richly decorated churches from inside and outside. Catholic administration defended their love of highly ornamented religious environment with “the Eucharistic presence of Christ meaning that the cathedral or chapel literally became the house of God. As such it was thought deserving of being beautified and dignified by the best creative efforts of the Christian art”.
But that was not the only reason for the dissatisfaction in the means of the religious situation in Early Modern Age. Reformists felt that too much attention is lead from God and His Son, Christ and given to Mary, the mother of Christ, and other saints. For example, “by 1500 most German churches had at least one altar dedicated to Mary and some, such as the parish church of St. Laurenz in Cologne, had two or three. Many of these Marian altars were adorned with splendid carved or painted retables showing scenes from the life of the Virgin, and some also bore richly decorated sculptures of the Virgin and Child”
But not only had the raising power of the Cult of Mary disturbed reformists, but the corruption of it by the priests and the ruling dynasties, like “the Wittelsbachs’ and Habsburgs’ militant use of Mary, especially during the era of the Thirty Years War, made a significant break between the Marian piety of the late Middle Age and that of the early modern period”. Mary underwent the transformation from the Virgin as Queen of Heaven to patron of Catholic dynasties and as military helper.
This kind of false expression of religiosity with the time found their way also inside the church itself: “a great deal of religious art arose from the somewhat self-centered fear of individuals with respect to the eternal destiny of their own souls. A salient feature of the piety of the period was its tendency to blend or confuse the two realms of sacred and secular in a fashion sometimes baffling to the modern mentality”. In the sacred art appeared elements from the secular art from which Protestants seeked to liberate their newly proclaimed church.
The role of saints also was dangerously rising by popularization of myths and fictional stories connected with them. It was made by “the large numbers of inexpensive biographies of individual saints published at the time. And it provided the nucleus of the subject matter or iconography of religious art. Almost 450 German religious paintings from the year 1495 – 1520 – of these, 137 portray the Virgin as a major figure. Another 125 depict lesser saints of the church. If the two categories are combined, the total accounts for nearly 60 percent of the entire sample”. At the same time “late medieval prayer books instructed their readers that for their petitions to be efficacious they should utter specific supplications before the images of various individual saints”
Catholic Church not only approved and propagated that kind of false religiosity, but also tried to gain benefit: “in pre-Reformation Wittenberg, the Castle Church had 64 clergy to attend to the divine offices and perform some 9 000 commemorative Masses annually. In Zwickau, where there were 8 churches in all, St. Mary’s Church alone employed 27 priests serving daily at 23 altars”.
Catholic Church was corrupted and people started to lose their faith not only in Holly institution and Pope, but also in Christianity as such. The early reformists already noticed the main problems and criticized church, trying to improve the situation and preparing ground for the reformation.
For those reformers who led the campaign to remove the images from the churches it was not the matter for abstract doctrinal reasons. They were motivated by their disgust over that they believed to be the abuse of religious subjects that more and more often had become associated with the use of the representational art for cultic purposes.
The first great outburst of the 16th century iconoclasm erupted as part of what is known as the Wittenberg Movement of 1521-22, a rapid sequence of reform-inspired events taking place in the old electoral town while Luther himself was absent at Wartburg Castle where he was hiding after his unsuccessful appearance at the Diet of Worms.
The place of Luther was taken by the most radical of the Wittenberg evangelicals named Gabriel Zwingli. He overtook Luther’s preaching position at the Augustinian convent and quickly gained popularity as powerful and fiery preacher. Although Luther introduced reformist ideas to people, Zwingli made them popular during Luther’s absence.
At the same time Andreas Karlstadt, who was one of the first theorists of Reformation, provided the theological basis for the criticism of religious imagery.
This all lead to the iconoclastic episodes of the winter of 1521-22, which were the climax of a raising agitation and outright violence. “Excitement had already begun to mount in Wittenberg in early autumn of 1521. During the first week of October revealed the anticlerical mood – when the hermits of St. Antony came to the city on one of their accustomed rounds of alms begging, the students threw dung and stones at them and interfered with their preaching and ceremonies”. This kind of demonstration of stark aggression and verbal attacks on the Mass resulted in its suspension at the Augustinian cloister in mid-October. Promoted by the impassioned preaching of Zwingli, the monks began to abandon their cloister. But that was only the beginning.
“In Wittenberg, in early hours of the morning of December 3, when priests were celebrating Mass in honor of the Virgin, in the city parish church were pelted with stones. Later in the day a mob burst into the same church, seized the missals.” This kind of actions repeated some days after the mentioned one. With every time they became more and more violent and savior, but “the next important eruption of destruction activity in the Wittenberg churches occurred on Christmas Eve. A mob burst into the parish church, smashed the lamps, threatened the priests, and bellowed out ribald songs”. People did not feel any respect or piety to the church, its priests and holy relics.
Till January 11 the city was peaceful, because of the absence of Zwingli. But after his comeback the city raised again in violent demonstrations lead by the passionate priest.
Less than two weeks later, on January 24, the city council of Wittenberg was forced to issue a reforming ordinance, which determined that all churches in the city have to liberate the holy space from most of altars and works of art, and other types of decorations.
Nevertheless the situation was tense till “in the first week of February, an excited crowd of towns people, apparently acting in impatient anticipation of the city council’s implementation of its decision to abolish the images, burst into the parish church and engaged in a rampage of destruction. Statues and paintings were torn down, smashed, and burned”.
“Luther finally returned to the electoral town during the first week in March and almost immediately preached a famous series of sermons vigorously denouncing destructive violence against the images.” Luther perceived the danger of the power of uncontrollable mob. He understood that there cannot be obedience in God’s will, if there is no respect to secular power.
To be able to fully analyze the course of the action and the activity of people, we have to take into the account psychological mood and characteristic features of that time people, which is greatly the subject of the psychological research. We have to mind not only dates and numbers, but also the revolutionary mood, which was pilling up and overtaking people and making them into the weapons in the hands of the new ideas and attitudes. Religious people became violent and ungovernable and acted against the law and the order. The chaos set in, which lead to the new way of order.
The main idea of the iconoclasm was to destroy images, because of the tradition of the Catholic Church to treat them as live and possessing holy qualities.
In reality people went from one extreme to anther - by destroying paintings and crucifixes, they treated them as if they were live people of flash and blood: “ironically, the destroyers of crucifixes, in attempting to demonstrate that the images were mere human fabrications, often treated these objects as though they were persons. The image was flogged, or ordered to drink, or otherwise mocked”. This situation could also be analyzed from the psychological point of view as “the rituals of violence against crucifixes sometimes unconsciously echoed the events of the passion itself”.
Mob by religious uprising destroyed everything in their way – not analyzing. Revolutionary feelings overtook human ability to judge own action and riots were transferred from the clergy and the institution of Roman Catholic Church to nearby parish churches and everything in them.
People were easily influenced and lead by educated spoke-persons who (in the case of Wittenberg) were local priests. People very fast overtook the idea of reformation and inner dissatisfaction of the institution of church gained outer expressions.
In this paper the author concentrates on the theological works of three reformists, because they were the main and most famous figures in Protestant theology. In some cases their ideas and attitudes were similar, but sometimes they had their own vision on God and His rule over the people; and on the rule of the early institution which should take care of religious subjects.
Karlstadt is being famous as the first person, who wrote down the theological statutes of Reformism; which was the starting point of further improvement and additions.
It is often reproved that in his works he usually uses the concepts of Luther and other reformists. But even so, he adds his own perspective and attitude to those ideas and shows the in new prism.
Karlstadt in his works often criticized external means of the piety. In such way, he hoped that “in condemning religious externalism he would be helping to reassert the primacy of the Word”. This kind of glance back at early Christian focuses on the liturgy and the Bible itself found its own way in the art of the early modern period. It was expressed as the written texts and the quotes of the Holy Books in the paintings of Protestant art. Often text was used to explain the picture, in order no misunderstandings to appear, which could later lead to the emergence of legends and myths, as it happened with Catholic Church.
Karlstadt as other reformists proclaimed that the model of real religiosity has to be searched in the Bible and the life style of the early Christians. They looked closely not only to the New Testament, but also rediscovered the wisdoms of the Old Testament. There they looked for the approval of the new theology. Karlstadt “in his effort to show that the images are profitless makes striking use of passages from the book of Isaiah”; in such way, past and present is combined, showing the renewal of the order.
As all Protestants at the beginning of the reformation thought, Karlstadt demonstrated strong opposition to the use of paintings and other expressions of art in church as means of education, showing an example or leading to prayer and meditation. As puritanically tended priest, he considered that “the physical, the sensory, is an impediment to the life of the spirit and should be discarded” and art as the means of pleasure can wake in humans only negative emotions.
Luther's position on images underwent several changes during the course of his life. These changes reflected the development of his views on worship and the need for a sacred space for communal worship. Although at the beginning of the formation of the Reformist thought he spoke about abandonment of art for religious needs, than after the destruction of images in Wittenberg, he distanced himself from the actions of the iconoclasts. He started to preach that images were religiously indifferent and only people’s superstitions operations with them should be condemned.
“By 1525, after his struggle against the spiritualist “fanatics”, who wanted to do away with all externals of worship and during the peasant uprisings he opposed”, Luther's position had significantly evolved. Luther taught that the Old Testament prohibition of images was directed only at idolatry.
Luther agreed with the other reformers in condemning images where they became objects of superstition or where they departed from the Scriptures. For Luther the basic dichotomy involved in the question of images was not that between spirit and flesh, as it was for the Zwinglians, but that between salvation by faith and salvation by works. The solution for Luther and his followers was a reformation in art that corresponded to a new way of considering the cross.
The cross of Christ was at the center of Luther's theology: “All genuine theology is the wisdom of the cross”. The cross and Christ moved from the background of the Medieval Age tradition of Catholic Church to the front of the Protestant theology and art of the new age. The crucifix became the source of the piety and godly wisdom.
Luther proposed a theology that begins with the suffering of Christ; therefore it was just logical that the crucifix became the main topic of the sacred art in Protestant Church. He supported his point of view with the idea that “corrupt is our condition that we would not even being aware of our plight unless God revealed it. It is Christ's death for us that reveals our sinfulness and God's wrath at it”. As the anthropology of the humanity becomes the history of the sins, Christ starts to play main role as the Savior of humans.
By Luther’s concept, art had three main functions which were relatively important in instructing the parish for their everyday and religious life. It was pedagogical, spiritual, and exemplary functions, which were interlinking one with another.
“Luther's theology also strongly emphasizes the cross as God's victory over the devil, sin, and death.” In art Christ is shown victorious even if the painting or carving is representing the crucifixion, because He is the symbol of the Gods almighty and love. And by this kind of art people are encouraged to have faith and be obedient.
Calvin was influenced by early Protestant works, where Luther set in the idea of the corrupted nature of art. But in comparison with Luther, Calvin stayed to this idea that images are useless in religious piety. And although he was against using images in churches, his ideas and theology influenced the development of sacred art.
Calvin strictly noted, that according to any kind of art, people can impersonate only things or beings observed by the eye. Therefore the depiction of God was strongly forbidden, as pure fabrication of our sinful imagination, but as “our Lord came forth very man, adopted the person of Adam, and assumed his name, that he might in his stead obey the Father; that he might present our flesh as the price of satisfaction to the just judgment of God, and in the same flesh pay the penalty which we had incurred”  the crucifixes were not prohibited, although Calvin did not support any kind of sacred art.
But comparing with Luther’s theology, Calvin concentrated more not on the crucifix, but other realms as blood: “When we say, that grace was obtained for us by the merit of Christ, our meaning is that we were cleansed by his blood, that his death was expiation for sin”. That is brightly visible in Protestant art, as Christ’s body is often harshly molded and bleeding, that in different situations brings different symbolic meaning to the whole piece of art. Blood is considered to be the main symbol as the price for our sins.
Bloody and crucified body of Christ is not the only peculiarity of the Protestant art. The face expression of the Son of God shows that “paying the price for our sins includes experiencing the psychological pains of damnation”. Calvin argues that it would have been shameful and undignified for Christ to have suffered such agony merely in anticipation of death, which so many others (even evil people) have endured with bravery. Rather, he agonized in anticipation of the pains of hell. The calm and elevated look of Jesus in Catholic traditions of passion is changed by Christ’s face marked by sufferings on the cross.
Although the look of Christ in some cases can be even disturbing because of the blood and wounds, and pain; in reality in pieces of art Jesus looks clean and untouched by all sorts of mockery He had endured before the crucifixion. Calvin explains “the evil of the cross by the fact that God uses the works of the ungodly to carry out the divine purposes, while remaining untouched by their evil acts.”
In the scenes of Golgotha Mountain viewers can observe several events of different moments of the narrative depicted in one painting or carving. It could be explained by Calvin’s attitude towards salvation: it is the completion of the work of salvation that is the sign of the new life and is given us.” Not one moment brings God’s grace, but the sequence of actions, which could also be linked with Calvin’s main topic of the theology – God’s predestination.
By analyzing some part of historical reality, there has to be the understanding of the continuation of the epoch before that.
Protestant artists were born or even had been raised and taught by Renaissance thought. It is just natural that early Protestant paintings had a lot in common with Renaissance art and its elements. Art was gradually changing and symbols of new religion slowly were introduced in art.
The primary topic is the place of the cross in salvation, as seen in theology and art. Theologically, it involves the doctrines of sin, justification, redemption, and other religious topics. Similarly, the subject raises attention to the aesthetics as well, including the place of art in society and the way it communicates, and its relation to conceptual thought.
Protestants refused the free flight of the imagination as the source for the religious art. God’s Word could only righteously lead an artist in the process of creation of the art which later inspired parish and priests. After the Reformation, “there can be only one resource for the Christian artist; to stand face to face with the Gospel and interpret it as he feels it”. Topics of the sacred art were chosen from the most important science of Holy Scripts looking from the theological point of view.
Although sacred art may be used instrumentally, to convey a specific religious message, arts in general have their separate lives, in which patrons, consumers, locations, talent (or lack of it), tradition, materials, techniques, etc., play an important role, quite apart from the message that religious art least ostensibly serves. And money played one of the most important parts of the creation of art: “Among early Protestants were a lot of good painters: Holbein, Durer, Jean Gonjon, and Bernard Palissy, who worked indiscriminately for Protestant and Catholic patrons.” Art (especially paintings) was a very expensive piece of prosperity. Not all could afford it, even if they wanted. Therefore artists were forced to paint not what they really would liked to or would preferred to, but instead what was the order of the patron or other noble and at the same time rich men.
Reformation art as the Reformation itself had a lot of different phases and types. Some of the artists found themselves in the middle between churches of different religions and concepts of art.
Durer’s art as transitional reformation art must be placed first of all within the context of Renaissance humanism. His education showed his priorities in art. “Durer made two trips to Italy, including a special journey to Bologna (in 1507) to learn the “secrets” of the art of perspective. But Durer never had direct access to the art of antiquity; he received his knowledge of the ancients through Italian prints, drawings, and art theory.” That is brightly seen in his carvings in “Engraved Passion”, where a lot of painter’s attention is paid to precise depiction of human body, putting emphasis on each and every smallest detail as muscles and wounds.
Starting around 1500, “Durer embarked on his life-long pursuit of the naturalistic portrayal of human form, taking inspiration from Vitruvius's “Canon” and attempting to reduce the human body to its rational component shapes.”  He was inspirited by Northern Humanist thought and it is possible that he also knew the works of the neo-Platonist Ficino, which were available in Nuremberg. Various concepts form different parts of Europe came into Germany and slowly went into the direction of the Reformation, before the idea of the Reformation itself was formulated.
Although there were a lot of medieval traditions and Catholic Church symbolic elements in his works, the influence of the Northern Humanistic thought through the interpretation of the Holy Scripts was introduced. In his carvings “the Small Passion” (1511) Christ’s expression of face is changed from traditionally esthetically exalted as in Renaissance paintings to flinched in pain. In his carvings “the Large Passion” (1498) Durer in scenes of passion slowly turns from Mary as a central object and puts Jesus and his sufferings in the middle of painters own art.
Durer’s success as an artist gave him entry into a high level of society in Nuremberg. He was named a member of the city's Great Council, and associated with educated and cultured members of the gentry. He studied languages, and was able to read Latin. His best friend was Willibald Pirckheimer, a well-educated humanist; it was he who introduced Durer to the classics, and informed him about philosophy and archeology. Durer was probably employed by the humanist Emperor Maximilian I because of humanistic qualities as well as for his technical skill.
And although most of his paintings and carvings were made before Reformation, Durer is considered to be semi-reformist painter, because a lot of his works gained recognition from Luther and later were printed as illustrations in reformist books of God’s Word and the Gospels.
Lukas Cranach as one of the most important painters in postulation of Protestantism art, by the time of the Reformation, he was a famous and rich man, one of the leading citizens of the city of Wittenberg, where he was a court painter to the Duke-Elector of Saxony, who later became Luther's protector. He had as well close relationships with Luther himself.
“Cranach supervised the printing of Luther's propaganda booklets, designed woodcuts for the German version of the New Testament, and painted Protestant princes and reformers. Most importantly he worked with Luther and under his influence to create a new style and subject matter to fit the new reformed approach to faith.” Ideology and art went hand in hand. Art was not abolished, but served as means of help in Protestant sermons by visualizing theological concepts.
It is especially vivid in Lukas Cranach’s group of several versions of a painting of the crucified Christ with the converted centurion what was made in the course of the years 1536–39. It is considered that these paintings introduce new symbolism of Reformist church and Protestant art. In the composition of the passion the place of Mary is taken by centurion who represented secular power and usually was patron of Protestant Church or the painter. In Cranach’s case the face of the centurion bears a similarity to portraits of the Elector of Saxony, Cranach's patron.
Depiction of a human body did not have esthetic function, but served symbolic representation of person’s inner world. In paintings like “by portrayal of criminals who were crucified together with Christ, the “good” one is figured as thin, pleasantly looking man with calm face expression, but the “bad” one is represented as heavy, angry looking man with face expressing suffering. It was representing the power of penance of the sins and redemption.
By his works, Cranach tried to reduce the importance of Virgin Mary as the individual saint. In paintings of passion as “Crucifixion” (1503) Mary is shown not alone under the cross or with other woman like Mary Magdalena or Anna, but with Josef, symbolizing sacred instance of marriage and woman main role as wife and mother.
Altarpieces stepped back from Renaissance tradition of capturing the beauty of a moment and tried to combine the whole story in one picture. Bright example is different variations of Cranach’s perception of “The Law and the Gospel” or also called as “The Justification of the Sinner”; one of them made in 1539. It covers subject starting with the Fall of Adam and Eve and finishing with the Resurrection of Christ. It covers the whole history of the sin and salvation from it. It is the main topic in Reformist theology as well.
The most famous work of Cranach was Wittenberg’s Altarpiece “The Last Supper and Scenes from the Life of Martin Luther” in Marienkirche. It represents Luther’s idea of the ideal sacred institution, which works in the same way as Christ with his apostils. In the lowest panel he shows the service of Luther, where between the priest and his parish is only Christ, no other mediator. Church in the background is depicted bleak and plain and the parish is attentively looking at Jesus in front of them. Luther in this painting stands in a pulpit with the Bible in front of him and with one hand points to bleeding Son of God. Nothing draws attention away from the most important in the ceremony and liturgy – Christ.
Cranach considered that his power of painter was a gift from God; therefore he was helping Luther to bring people closer to the understanding of God’s will and commandments by using his talent of painting. This idea was depicted in Cranach’s sons - Lukas Cranach the Younger - painting “Weimar Altarpiece”, where he portrays his father standing next to the cross of Christ between John the Baptist and Luther and the blood of Jesus stream on Cranach’s the Elder forehead as a symbol of the Gods blessing.
Much of the medieval traditions as devotion to Mary were rejected by Luther and his followers. The most obvious element to be removed was the idea that Mary and other saints could serve as intercessors or mediators with God. The intercessory structure found in medieval Catholicism was seen as detrimental to Christ and his role as the sole mediator and savior.
“Mary was used to promote married life against celibacy and the religious life, in that she herself, despite her virginal status, accepted her calling as a wife and mother.” Mary was represented as ideal mother and wife – obedient and faithful. She lost all other of her functions.
In the center of Reformist theology emerged Christ on the cross. The priests of new confession preached against the traditions of corrupted Catholic Church. Art as means of decoration fell into disgrace.
Art, as the field of being the most probably subordinated by power of imagination, was recognized as inadequate in use of church for theological purposes. The iconoclasm took this under its own control and got rid of all imageries that could perform in acts of false idolatry and superstition. The riots ended up in more useless actions of mockery over sacred art then even ritual activities of superstitious believers in the late medieval period. It can be detected that by destroying altarpieces and other pieces of art in churches as “the same injustice done at the Reformation than by the orthodox emperors of early Christianity, who forcibly suppressed the schools of Athens”.
But at the later phase of the formation of Protestantism, it become clear that art can serve higher aim by supporting theological texts and depicting stories of the Bible. But at this moment art lost its freedom. Tradition and imagination was the enemy for inspiration of painter. Instead of hose were used studies of the Scripts and the Acts. Also the new symbolic was introduced by theology.
The Passion of Christ became one of the most popular topics for painters. Jesus sufferings on the cross symbolized redemption of our sins and his blood was the price for it. Human body was not a subject of esthetics, but the means to show our inner world. Christ’s maimed body represented the ugliness of our own souls, deformed by our sins.
Christ was depicted victorious as He won the battle with death, sins and evil. His glorious depictions on the cross served as bright example all Protestants. His life and self-sacrifice was motivation for others to have faith in God and in that way received love from God.
1. Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979
2. Coulton, G.G. Art and the Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1953.
3. Heal, B. The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany: Protestant and Catholic Piety, 1500 – 1648. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007
4. Kreitzer, B. Reforming Mary: Changing Images of the Virgin Mary in Lutheran Sermons of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004
5. Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross: The Passion of Christ in Theology and the Arts, from the Renaissance to the Counter-Reformation. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 16
 Heal, B. The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany: Protestant and Catholic Piety, 1500 – 1648. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. p. 1
 Heal, B. The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. p. 4
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 16 - 17
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 19
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 22
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 14
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 37
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 37
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 38
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 40
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 42
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross: The Passion of Christ in Theology and the Arts, from the Renaissance to the Counter-Reformation. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 131
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 131
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 26
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 30
 Christensen, C.C. Art and the Reformation in Germany. Athens: Ohio University Press. 1979. p. 26
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 132
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 108
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 111
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 113
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 117
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 120
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 121
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 121
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 122
 Coulton, G.G. Art and the Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1953. p. 400
 Coulton, G.G. Art and the Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1953. p. 408
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 140
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 141
 Viladesau, R. The Triumph of the Cross. New York: Oxford University Press. 2008. p. 154
 Kreitzer, B. Reforming Mary: Changing Images of the Virgin Mary in Lutheran Sermons of the Sixteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 135
 Coulton, G.G. Art and the Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1953. p. 404